Selenium cucumber is an automated testing approach using Java programming. It uses the behavior-driven development (BDD) platform to come up with automated test scripts for testing the web.
In Cucumber, the behavior of the web application is explained in simple English. The BDD will enable you to write unit tests code and how to execute them.
The testing is carried out to ensure web-based applications continue to work across different browsers. BDD testing approach is inexpensive in terms of the resources required and time taken to write the automated tests scripts.
Why use cucumber with selenium development approach
Most organizations integrate cucumber with selenium to increase the readability index since cucumber uses simple English and users can easily read and understand the flow of the program.
The cucumber BDD framework links;
- The software engineers and the business analysts
- The manual testers and automated testers
- The manual testers and the program developers
This development approach enables the customers/clients to understand the program code and how it functions since plain text or Gherkin language is used. The code is written in simple text and everyone in the organization will be able to read and understand the behavior of the software being developed.
The written simple plain tests are converted into Java language by the cucumber. The cucumber development framework supports several scripting and programming languages. The function of the Selenium framework is to drive the browser.
Prerequisite of using Selenium-cucumber
To integrate selenium with cucumber you need to download and install Selenium jar Files: Selenium-Server-Standalone into your machine.
Download the Cucumber files one by one, e.g. Cucumber-core, Cucumber-html, Gherkin, among others.
Once you download all the cucumber files, the next step should be to automate testing.
This requires a step by step procedure on;
- How to create a new project in an eclipse java development framework.
- How to add Jar files in into the created project
- Creating feature files and scenarios.
How to write the tests
Test cases written based on BDD are stored in feature files which can hold several test scenarios. All the tests are interpreted into a particular language by the cucumber and then selenium platform is used to drive all the tests cases in the browser.
The cucumber is stored in the features library with an extension “.feature’.
To access it use the path features/my_first.feature. This feature can be extended or create user-defined features by following the predefined steps in your selenium cucumber manual.
Using these predefined steps, you will be able to automate the test cases with ease and more efficiently. No much coding is required.
Given, when and then are used in coming up with test cased and then later converted to Java code.
- Given: It gives the details of the test scenario to be executed. It shows where the test occurs in the application and any prerequisite data needed.
- When: This element defines the set of actions that will trigger the test. This can be the user or a subsystem action.
- Then: It specifies the output of the test. It defines the expected results.
Example: login test
Feature: Test login
Scenario: Login Success or Failure
Given: Navigate to the mock application
When: Login with your valid credentials
Then: You should see that you’re logged in successfully
The first line defines the business functionality or what needs to be done.
The second line clarifies the scenario to be written
Line three defines the precondition to be followed
Line four indicates the action which needs to be performed and
Line five shows the expected outcome.
The cucumber then reads these feature files in the defined location and runs the tests with the specified tags.
Advantages of using Selenium-Cucumber
Behavior-driven development approaches are created to ensure collaboration between all the individuals from the clients to the testers. The clients should be engaged in the product development by coming up with behavior scenarios.
These scenarios include;
- Product requirements
- The acceptable criteria for the developers
- Test cases to be used by testers
- Required test scripts for the Automator
- A detailed description of other stakeholders.
- Add Clarity
Each developed scenario should focus on providing the expected behavior of the product. All behaviors should be written in Gherkin language for easy understanding. Avoid any jargons and any ambiguity words. Adding clarity to the text ensures the developers get what the customer wants.
- Streamlining of the processes
One of the main function of using BDD is to speed up the development process. Developers rely on scenario requirements, the acceptance criteria, developed tests cases and test scripts to come up with the expected result. These steps help in streamlining processes and reduce any product development failure.
- Test case definition
Once the behavior scenarios are created, test cases are defined for testing each phase. This step ensures the product is tested early in the development process to identify any product bugs.
The created scenarios can be converted to automated tests. From the scenario steps, a function is written to automate each step’s operation.
- Code reuse
The given, when and then plain texts syntax are reused between the scenarios. The codes are automated for reuse and this makes them become modular. There is no change in the implementation process.
- Variation of scenarios
When you want to expand your test coverage, you can come up with different inputs to run on the same scenario. This makes it easy to extend the code functionality without any code duplication. Coming up with scenario outlines for combining different inputs makes you automation steps easier.
- Code adaptability
Selenium and cucumber technologies are widely used due to their flexible nature. BDD scenarios can easily adapt to changes and it is easy to edit the plain text language. Using modular design in code automation makes it easy to update the code. It also makes it possible to filter scenarios by their tag name and determine which scenarios to execute.