The process of finding out the bugs or defects manually in a particular software so that the end user can use that application, or software as it is supposed to work, is called Manual Testing.
Manual Testing does not use any tools or automation scripting. In the process, there is a tester who conducts the tests manually and uses a set of steps that are pre-defined.
Advantages of Manual Testing
However, software testing is a process which is filled with challenges as the tester needs to have some skill set and the testers need to be aware and enthusiastic at each phase of the cycle. The following are the advantages of manual testing:
• It is inexpensive to conduct
• It is easy to be learned
• Manual testing is anytime better than automation testing as automation cannot replace human reasoning
• It is less time consuming too
• It is more reliable than automated testing
• Helps in checking the feasibility of automation testing
After the software is working well, then only it is passed on to the end users. To perform the manual testing, we need to understand how to perform them:
Requirements: The first thing that comes into the picture is understanding the requirement of the software. This will help you know what is it that needs to be tested. This is one of the most vital things that helps make a bug-free software.
Test Cases: After understanding the requirements, the test cases are written. An algorithm is made to test the functions and different scenarios. Writing test cases will help execution of the tests go smooth and hence will be an important step that leads to a bug-free software. When the test cases are planned, they are planned in such a manner that they cover 100% of the software application.
Conduction: Once the writing of the test cases is complete, the test environment is prepared to begin the test. Make sure that each test has been marked as “passed” or “failed”. The difference between the actual and desired results are bugs. The conduction is a time-consuming process and hence the tester needs to be patient so that no vital information is missed.
Results: The final results will help you get a software which complies with the requirements of the business and is bug-free to use or find if there are any bugs that need to be fixed.
Defect Fixing: The last step involved in the process is the fix the bugs that come to the way of an error-free software and then re-verifying the final software.
Now when you know what are the requirements of the business, we now need to understand the stages of manual testing as quoted below:
Unit Testing: When individual units and components are tested by the developer, it is called unit testing, as implied by the name itself. When it comes to a unit, it is the smallest part of the software and it takes the help of a programming language to be performed. It has its own implications as debugging becomes easier by this method and also makes your code reusable. It is also important as when you debug a software using this method, the bugs are detected early that surely eases the integration step and also provides a “thumbs up” for the documentation process. This type of testing isolates each part of the program and makes sure that each part of the program is correct. This helps promote healthy software development and helps so that the best solution emerges out.
Integration Testing: This part comes when units and modules are integrated together. This is performed so that the stability and reliability of the modules are verified. This helps to find the faults in the interaction between integrated units. The techniques that are used are Big Bang Integration Testing, Component Integration Testing, and System Integration Testing. Integration testing can help users expose problems with the interfaces so that the trouble is identified before it occurs in the real-world execution.
System Testing: This step is performed after the integration testing step. This is carried out on a complete software product to evaluate if the system is working well or not. The sole purpose of performing this testing is to detect any bugs that might have occurred between the integrated software units or between any assemblages. The different techniques used in this are functionality, stress, scalability, performance, and regression testing.
Acceptance Testing: This is performed when the software is tested for acceptability. The primary purpose of performing this testing is to evaluate if the system complies with the requirements of the business and to make sure if it is okay for delivery. The various forms of this testing include User Acceptance Testing, Business Acceptance Testing, Alpha Testing, and Beta Testing.
Acceptance testing is also known as the user acceptance testing (UAT), end-user testing, or Operational Acceptance Testing (OAT) as it is conducted to check if the requirements of the specifications are meeting with the expectations or not. This test may be needed to be performed several times as all the test cases may not necessarily be executed in a single go. When the test is executed, the results are retained for comparison. If the actual result matches the expected one, the test is said to be “passed”. The whole project then depends on the number of test cases that pass. If the number of the “failed” test cases are falling in the expected result range and do not breach the predetermined threshold, the project is said to pass. Else, the system may be rejected.
The Goal of Manual Testing
As we all know software testing is a time-consuming process, it is necessary at each step that a testing is performed that helps understand where the bug has started from. The test plan is performed and created by a test manager.
This not only helps gain business understanding but also helps bugs get fixed at the correct point of time. This is why manual testing plays a crucial role in each and every software.